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Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. Ingres was profoundly influenced by past artistic traditions and aspired to become the guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style. Although he considered himself a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, it is his portraits, both painted and drawn, that are recognized as his greatest legacy. His expressive distortions of form and space made him an important precursor of modern art, influencing Picasso, Matisse and other modernists. Born into a modest family in Montauban, he travelled to Paris to study in the studio of David. In 1802 he made his Salon debut, and won the Prix de Rome for his painting The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles. By the time he departed in 1806 for his residency in Rome, his style—revealing his close study of Italian and Flemish Renaissance masters—was fully developed, and would change little for the rest of his life. While working in Rome and subsequently Florence from 1806 to 1824, he regularly sent paintings to the Paris Salon, where they were faulted by critics who found his style bizarre and archaic. He received few commissions during this period for the history paintings he aspired to paint, but was able to support himself and his wife as a portrait painter and draughtsman. Ingres's style was formed early in life and changed comparatively little. His earliest drawings, such as the Portrait of a Man (or Portrait of an unknown, 3 July 1797, now in the Louvre) already show a suavity of outline and an extraordinary control of the parallel hatchings which model the forms. From the first, his paintings are characterized by a firmness of outline reflecting his often-quoted conviction that "drawing is the probity of art". He believed colour to be no more than an accessory to drawing, explaining: "Drawing is not just reproducing contours, it is not just the line; drawing is also the expression, the inner form, the composition, the modelling. See what is left after that. Drawing is seven eighths of what makes up painting." The art historian Jean Clay said Ingres "proceeded always from certitude to certitude, with the result that even his freest sketches reveal the same kind of execution as that found in the final works." Abhorring the visible brushstroke, Ingres made no recourse to the shifting effects of colour and light on which the Romantic school depended; he preferred local colours only faintly modelled in light by half tones. "Ce que l'on sait," he would repeat, "il faut le savoir l'épée à la main." ("Whatever you know, you must know it with sword in hand.") Ingres thus left himself without the means of producing the necessary unity of effect when dealing with crowded compositions, such as the Apotheosis of Homer and the Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian. Among Ingres's historical and mythological paintings, the most satisfactory are usually those depicting one or two figures, such as Oedipus, The Half-Length Bather, Odalisque, and The Spring, subjects only animated by the consciousness of perfect physical well-being. Ingres was averse to theories, and his allegiance to classicism—with its emphasis on the ideal, the generalized, and the regular—was tempered by his love of the particular. He believed that "the secret of beauty has to be found through truth. The ancients did not create, they did not make; they recognized." In many of Ingres's works there is a collision between the idealized and the particular that creates what Robert Rosenblum termed an "oil-and-water sensation". This contradiction is vivid in Cherubini and the Muse of Lyric Poetry (1842), for example, in which the detailed rendering of the 81-year-old composer is juxtaposed with an idealized muse in classical drapery. Although capable of painting quickly, he often laboured for years over a painting. Ingres's pupil Amaury-Duval wrote of him: "With this facility of execution, one has trouble explaining why Ingres' oeuvre is not still larger, but he scraped out frequently, never being satisfied ... and perhaps this facility itself made him rework whatever dissatisfied him, certain that he had the power to repair the fault, and quickly, too." The Source, although dated 1856, was painted about 1820, except for the head and the extremities; Amaury-Duval, who knew the work in its incomplete state, professed that the after-painting, necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the vigour and precision of touch that distinguished the original execution of the torso. Thank you, please subscribe for future videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0gMk3w9hw8BbtqoUpEMKeg?sub_confirmation=1
Peder Severin Krøyer (1851-1909), professionally known as P. S. Krøyer, was a Danish painter. Krøyer was born in Stavanger, Norway, on 23 July 1851 to Ellen Cecilie Gjesdal. He was raised by Gjesdal's sister, Bertha Cecilie (born 1817) and brother-in-law, the Danish zoologist Henrik Nikolai Krøyer, after his mother was judged unfit to care for him. Krøyer moved to Copenhagen to live with his foster parents soon afterward. Having begun his art education at the age of nine under private tutelage, he was enrolled in Copenhagen's Technical Institute the following year. In 1870 at the age of 19 Krøyer completed his studies at the Royal Danish Academy of Art (Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi), where he had studied with Frederik Vermehren. In 1873 he was awarded the gold medal, as well as a scholarship. His official debut as a painter was in 1871 at Charlottenborg with a portrait of a friend, the painter Frans Schwartz. He exhibited regularly at Charlottenborg throughout his life. In 1874 Heinrich Hirschsprung bought his first painting from Krøyer, establishing a long-standing patronage. Hirschsprung's collection of art forms the basis of the Hirschsprung Museum in Copenhagen. Travels Between 1877 and 1881, Krøyer travelled extensively in Europe, meeting artists, studying art, and developing his skills and outlook. He stayed in Paris and studied under Léon Bonnat, and undoubtedly came under the influence of contemporary impressionists – Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Edgar Degas, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Édouard Manet. He continued to travel throughout his life, constantly drawing inspiration from foreign artists and cultures. Hirschsprung provided financial support during the early travels, and Krøyer continued exhibiting in Denmark throughout this period. In 1882 he returned to Denmark. He spent June–October at Skagen, then a remote fishing village on the northern tip of Denmark, painting themes from local life, as well as depictions of the artistic community there. He would continue to be associated with the developing art and literary scene at Skagen. Other artists at Skagen included writers Holger Drachmann, Georg Brandes and Henrik Pontoppidan, and artists Michael Ancher and Anna Ancher. Krøyer divided his time between rented houses in Skagen during the summer, a winter apartment in Copenhagen where he worked on his large commissioned portraits, and travel outside of the country. On a trip to Paris in 1888 he ran into Marie Martha Mathilde Triepcke, whom he had known in Copenhagen. They fell in love and, after a whirlwind romance, married on 23 July 1889 at her parents' home in Germany. Marie Krøyer, who was also a painter, became associated with the Skagen community, and after their marriage was often featured in Krøyer's paintings. The couple had one child, a daughter named Vibeke, born in January 1895. They were divorced in 1905 following a prolonged separation. Krøyer's eyesight failed him gradually over the last ten years of his life until he was totally blind. Ever the optimist, he painted almost to the end, in spite of health obstacles. In fact, he painted some of his last masterpieces while half-blind, joking that the eyesight in his one working eye had become better with the loss of the other eye. Krøyer died in 1909 in Skagen at 58 years of age after years of declining health. He had also been in and out of hospitals, suffering from bouts of mental illness. Krøyer's best known and best-loved work is entitled Summer Evening on Skagen's Southern Beach with Anna Ancher and Marie Krøyer (Sommeraften ved Skagen Sønderstrand med Anna Ancher og Marie Krøyer), 1893. He painted many beach scenes featuring both recreation life on the beach (bathers, strollers), and local fishermen. Another well-loved work is Midsummer Eve Bonfire on Skagen Beach (Sankthansbål på Skagen strand), 1906. This large-scale work features a great crowd of the artistic and influential Skagen community gathered around a large bonfire on the beach on Saint John's Eve (Midsummer Eve). Both of these works are in the permanent collection of the Skagens Museum which is dedicated to that community of artists, including those who gathered around Krøyer, a great organizer and bon vivant. Skagen Painters: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA3DWLD8grG5PEjILDvKlUbLKTtnFByhm Christian Krohg (1852-1925): Coming soon Carl Locher (1851-1915): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIL74ctj1-0 Laurits Tuxen (1853-1927): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ryf8kThDjvA Viggo Johansen (1851-1935): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGHfG1QBRtM Michael Peter Ancher (1849-1927): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmxyxcIdzWs Anna Ancher (1859-1935): https://youtu.be/QCCRHQvLY-A Peder Severin Krøyer (1851–1909): This Video Thank you, please subscribe for future videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0gMk3w9hw8BbtqoUpEMKeg?sub_confirmation=1
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Antonio Reyna Manescau (1859-1937) was a Spanish painter that developed most of his career in Italy. Arguably a member of the Málaga School of Painting, he studied under Bernardo Ferrándiz and alongside Moreno Carbonero.
He moved to Italy in his early 20's, where he was further influenced by Italian and Spanish expatriate artists, and where he lived for the rest of his life.
After his first visit to Venice in 1885, he specialized in landscape painting. He is widely known for the preciosity of his Venetian veduta, the importance he places in the accurate depiction of architectural detail and his mastery of colour.
Among his most important works are his numerous views of the Venetian canals and Piazza San Marco, the classical scene Floralia and Rancho Andaluz.
Being still a little boy Antonio showed a great ability for drawing. Although he continued living in Coín for the rest of his childhood, he began his artistic training at the School of Fine Arts in Malaga, where he was taught by Joaquín Martínez de la Vega, first, and then by Bernardo Ferrándiz, founder of the Málaga School of Painting.
He studied alongside future master José Moreno Carbonero, who was just a year older than him. From a young age he exhibited his works regularly, standing out in the local artistic environment for his use of colours, the attractiveness of his compositions and the agility of his brushwork.
In 1880, at age 20, he sold his first important work for the town hall of Coín.
In 1882 he received a scholarship from the Provincial Council to further his art studies in Italy. He moved to Rome, and in 1885 visited Venice; from that year on, Venetian landscapes, showing landmarks like the Grand Canal and Piazza San Marco but also less known quarters of the city, are ubiquitous in his work.
Although his scholarship was supposed to finish in 1886, he was captivated by Italy and remained there. In Rome he frequently visited the workshop of Villegas Cordero, like so many other Spaniards, and under his influence he produced some oriental paintings.
Influenced by classical antiquity, by the mid 1880's he painted his lost masterwork Floralia, a classical scene that represents the annual festival celebrated in honour of the mythical goddess Flora and the arrival of spring. In order to achieve a meticulous representation of the ornaments and mosaics, he travelled to southern Italy to study the Pompeian wall paintings and the Farnese model of the Museum of Naples.
In 1895 Antonio, then 36 years of age, was already a recognized and awarded painter. That year, while his brother Ricardo was appointed mayor of Coín, Antonio was invited by the Ateneo de Madrid board to decorate their headquarters. While in Madrid, the King of Spain, Alfonso XIII, made him a Knight of the Royal Order of Carlos III, the highest distinction awarded to a Spanish artist at that time.
As his fame consolidated, he painted two portraits of Pope Benedict XV, that entered the Vatican Museum, and regularly exhibited his production, traveling constantly in Italy. He worked for long periods in Assisi, where he visited the Benlliure brothers, of whom he was a friend, and also in Naples, where he studied the works of the Resina and Posillipo schools. Although in this stage he painted numerous realistic paintings, he still produced Venetian landscapes and veduta, and views of the outskirts of Rome. On August 4th, 1899, her only daughter, María Matilde, was born.
His mother Matilde died in Coín on September 7, 1910, and Antonio travelled to his hometown for her funeral. During his stay he painted a large canvas titled Rancho Andaluz, in which a family property known as 'Cortijo Ricardo' is masterfully represented. He exhibited this work in the Spanish pavilion at the International Exhibition of Fine Arts held in Rome in 1911. The painting is currently in the town hall of Coín.
Reyna Manescau works are represented at museums such as the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the Hermitage Museum, the Carmen Thyssen Museum and the Málaga Museum, and are also present in various private collections, such as the Bellver Collection in Seville or the Pedrera Martínez Collection based in the Sorzano de Tejada Palace, Orihuela.
Reyna Manescau was primarily a landscape and veduta painter that devoted most of his production to the city of Venice. He excelled at the painting, in small dimensions, of such urban landscapes, repeating them in many occasions with minimal variations. His creations are noticed for his preciosity and the importance he places in the accurate depiction of architectural detail. In his painting he shows a great ability for drawing and an innate skill for composition, abundant richness of color and bold brushwork.
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