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Allan Ramsay (1713-1784) was a prominent Scottish portrait-painter. Allan Ramsay was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the eldest son of Allan Ramsay, poet and author of The Gentle Shepherd. From the age of twenty he studied in London under the Swedish painter Hans Hysing, and at the St. Martin's Lane Academy; leaving in 1736 for Rome and Naples, where he worked for three years under Francesco Solimena and Imperiali. On his return in 1738 to the British Isles, he first settled in Edinburgh, attracting attention by his head of Duncan Forbes of Culloden and his full-length portrait of the Duke of Argyll, later used on Royal Bank of Scotland banknotes. He later moved to London, where he was employed by the Duke of Bridgewater. His pleasant manners and varied culture, not less than his artistic skill, contributed to render him popular. One of his drawing pupils was Margaret Lindsay, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Evelick and Amelia Murray. He later eloped with her and on 1 March 1752 they married in the Canongate Kirk, Edinburgh; her father never forgave her for marrying an artist. Ramsay already had to maintain a daughter from his previous marriage and his two surviving sisters, but told Sir Alexander that he could provide Margaret with an annual income of £100. He said it would increase ‘as my affairs increase, and I thank God, they are in a way of increasing’ and that his only motive for the marriage was ‘my love for your Daughter, who, I am sensible, is entitled to much more than ever I shall have to bestow upon her’. Three children survived from their long and happy marriage, Amelia, Charlotte, and John. Ramsay and his new wife spent 1754 to 1757 together in Italy, going to Rome, Florence, Naples and Tivoli, researching, painting and drawing old masters, antiquities and archaeological sites. He earned income painting Grand Tourists' portraits. This and other trips to Italy involved more literary and antiquarian research than art. After their return, Ramsay in 1761 was appointed to succeed John Shackelton as Principal Painter in Ordinary to George III, beating Hudson to the post. The king commissioned so many royal portraits to be given to ambassadors and colonial governors, that Ramsay used the services of numerous assistants—of whom David Martin and Philip Reinagle are the best known. He gave up painting in about 1770 to concentrate on literary pursuits. His health was shattered by an accidental dislocation of the right arm and his second wife's death in 1782. With unflinching pertinacity, he struggled until he had completed a likeness of the king upon which he was engaged at the time, and then started for his beloved Italy. He left a series of 50 royal portraits to be completed by his assistant Reinagle. For several years he lingered in the south, his constitution finally broken. He died at Dover on 10 August 1784. Among his most satisfactory productions are some of his earlier ones, such as the full-length of the duke of Argyll, and the numerous bust-portraits of Scottish gentlemen and their ladies which he executed before settling in London. They are full of both grace and individuality; the features show excellent draughtsmanship; and the flesh-painting is firm and sound in method, though frequently tending a little to hardness and opacity. His full-length of Lady Mary Coke is remarkable for the skill and delicacy with which the white satin drapery is managed; while the portrait of his brown-eyed second wife Margaret, in the Scottish National Gallery, is described as having a sweetness and tenderness. The portrait of his wife also shows the influence of French art, which Ramsay incorporated into his work. The large collection of his sketches in the possession of the Royal Scottish Academy and the Board of Trustees, Edinburgh also show this French elegance and soft colours. Ramsay has paintings in the collection of a few British institutions including the National Gallery in London, Sheffield, Derby Art Gallery (attributed), Glasgow Museum and Newstead Abbey. According to Mario de Valdes y Cocom in 2009 on an edition of PBS Frontline, in several paintings of Queen Charlotte, Ramsay deliberately emphasised "mulatto features" which the queen supposedly inherited via descent from a 13th-century Moorish ancestor. Valdes suggests that copies of these paintings were sent to the colonies to be used by abolitionists as a de facto support for their cause. Other historians question whether the 13th-century ancestor, referred to in various places as a 'Moor' and Berber, was black African. In any event, they contend that the connection, nine and 15 generations removed, was too distant to consider Charlotte 'black' in any cultural way, as her other ancestors were all European https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Ramsay_(artist) Thank you, please subscribe for future videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0gMk3w9hw8BbtqoUpEMKeg?sub_confirmation=1
George Stubbs ARA (1724-1806) was an English painter, best known for his paintings of horses. Stubbs was born in Liverpool, the son of a currier, or leather-dresser, John Stubbs, and his wife Mary. Information on his life until the age of 35 or so is sparse, relying almost entirely on notes made by Ozias Humphry, a fellow artist and friend; Humphry's informal memoir, which was not intended for publication, was based on a series of private conversations he had with Stubbs around 1794, when Stubbs was 70 years old, and Humphry 52. Stubbs worked at his father's trade until the age of 15 or 16, at which point he told his father that he wished to become a painter. While initially resistant, Stubbs's father (who died not long after, in 1741), eventually acquiesced in his son's choice of a career path, on the condition that he could find an appropriate mentor. Stubbs subsequently approached the Lancashire painter and engraver Hamlet Winstanley, and was briefly engaged by him in a sort of apprenticeship relationship, probably not more than several weeks in duration. Having initially demonstrated his abilities and agreed to do some copying work, Stubbs had access to and opportunity to study the collection at Knowsley Hall, the estate where Winstanley was then residing; however, he soon left when he came into conflict with the older artist over exactly which pictures he could work on copying. Thereafter as an artist he was self-taught. He had had a passion for anatomy from his childhood, and in or around 1744, he moved to York, in the North of England, to pursue his ambition to study the subject under experts. In York, from 1745 to 1753, he worked as a portrait painter, and studied human anatomy under the surgeon Charles Atkinson, at York County Hospital, One of his earliest surviving works is a set of illustrations for a textbook on midwifery by John Burton, Essay towards a Complete New System of Midwifery, published in 1751. In 1754 Stubbs visited Italy. Forty years later he told Ozias Humphry that his motive for going to Italy was, "to convince himself that nature was and is always superior to art whether Greek or Roman, and having renewed this conviction he immediately resolved upon returning home". In 1756 he rented a farmhouse in the village of Horkstow, Lincolnshire, and spent 18 months dissecting horses, assisted by his common-law wife, Mary Spencer. He moved to London in about 1759 and in 1766 published The anatomy of the Horse. The original drawings are now in the collection of the Royal Academy. His most famous work is probably Whistlejacket, a painting of the thoroughbred racehorse rising on his hind legs, commissioned by the 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, which is now in the National Gallery in London. This and two other paintings carried out for Rockingham break with convention in having plain backgrounds. Throughout the 1760s he produced a wide range of individual and group portraits of horses, sometimes accompanied by hounds. He often painted horses with their grooms, whom he always painted as individuals. Meanwhile, he also continued to accept commissions for portraits of people, including some group portraits. From 1761 to 1776 he exhibited at the Society of Artists of Great Britain, but in 1775 he switched his allegiance to the recently founded but already more prestigious Royal Academy of Arts. Stubbs also painted historical pictures, but these are much less well regarded. From the late 1760s he produced some work on enamel. In the 1770s Josiah Wedgwood developed a new and larger type of enamel panel at Stubbs's request. Stubbs hoped to achieve commercial success with his paintings in enamel, but the venture left him in debt. Also in the 1770s he painted single portraits of dogs for the first time, while also receiving an increasing number of commissions to paint hunts with their packs of hounds. He remained active into his old age. In the 1780s he produced a pastoral series called Haymakers and Reapers, and in the early 1790s he enjoyed the patronage of the Prince of Wales, whom he painted on horseback in 1791. His last project, begun in 1795, was A comparative anatomical exposition of the structure of the human body with that of a tiger and a common fowl, fifteen engravings from which appeared between 1804 and 1806. The project was left unfinished upon Stubbs's death at the age of 81 on 10 July 1806, in London. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Stubbs Thank you, please subscribe for future videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0gMk3w9hw8BbtqoUpEMKeg?sub_confirmation=1
Andrea Solari (also Solario) (1460–1524) was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Milanese school. He was initially named Andre del Gobbo, but more confusingly as Andrea del Bartolo a name shared with two other Italian painters, the 14th Century Sienese Andrea di Bartolo, and the 15th Century Florentine Andrea di Bartolo. His paintings can be seen in Venice, Milan, The Louvre and the Château de Gaillon (Normandie, France). One of his better-known paintings is the Virgin of the Green Cushion (c. 1507) in the Louvre (illustrated here). Solario was born in Milan. He was one of the most important followers of Leonardo da Vinci, and brother of Cristoforo Solari, who gave him his first training whilst employed extensively on work at the Milan cathedral, and at the Certosa di Pavia. In 1490 he accompanied his brother to Venice, where he seems to have been strongly influenced by Antonello da Messina, who was then active in the city. The fine portrait of a Venetian Senator (currently at the National Gallery of London) displays Antonello's plastic conception of form and was probably painted about 1492. The two brothers returned to Milan in 1493. The Ecce Homo at the Poldi-Pezzoli Museum, notable for its strong modelling, may have been painted soon after his arrival. Solari's earliest dated work is a Holy Family and St. Jerome (at the Brera Gallery), with a fine landscape background, executed at Murano in 1495. The Leonardesque type of the Madonna proves that Andrea after his return from Venice, became strongly influenced by the great Florentine artist, who was then carrying everything before him. To this period of Andrea belong a small Crucifixion (1503, at the Louvre) and the portrait of Charles d'Amboise (Louvre); the portrait of Giovanni Longoni (1505, National Gallery of London); the Annunciation (1506, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge); and the beautiful Virgin of the Green Cushion (Louvre), for which a sensitive drawing of the Virgin's head is in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana at Milan; and the Head of the Baptist in a silver charger (1507, Louvre). In 1507 Andrea Solari went to France with letters of introduction to the Cardinal of Amboise, and was employed for two years on frescoes in the chapel of his castle of Gaillon in Normandy. According to Giovanni Morelli's suggestion, the artist may have visited Flanders before returning to his native country, and this may account for the Flemish character of his later work. The artist was back in Italy in 1515, the date of the Flight into Egypt (Poldi-Pezzoli Collection) with its harmonious and detailed landscape background. To this period belong the Procession to Calvary (Borghese Gallery, Rome); the portrait of the Chancellor Domenico Morone (Palazzo Scotti, Milan); and the Woman playing a guitar (at the National Gallery of Ancient Art, Rome). Andrea's last work was an altarpiece representing The Assumption of the Virgin, left unfinished at his death and completed by Bernardino Campi about 1576. See also Gallery (below) for a selection of Solari's work. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Solari Thank you, please subscribe for future videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0gMk3w9hw8BbtqoUpEMKeg?sub_confirmation=1
Herman Alfred Leonard Wahlberg (1834-1906) was a Swedish landscape painter from Stockholm. After receiving preparatory education at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, Wahlberg moved to Düsseldorf in 1857 to train—he was since associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. He returned to Stockholm in 1862 and painted Svenskt insjölandskap från Kolmården (1866), which became very famous and was displayed at the National Museum of Arts. Wahlberg moved to Paris in 1866 and displayed two paintings at the 1868 Paris Salon. He became successful in Paris and was awarded with medals at the Paris Salon in 1870 and 1872. At the 1878 World's Fair in Paris, Wahlberg was recognized with a first class medal. Alfred Wahlberg was born on 13 February 1834 in Stockholm, Sweden. His father was a painter and his mother worked with carving. Wahlberg learned his father's profession as a child, but became a student at Royal Swedish Academy of Music after showing precocious musical talent. He studied piano and clarinet at the academy. After finishing his studies, Wahlberg joined the orchestra Göta gardes musikkår, and earned money (25–50 öre per hour) by giving piano lessons. He received preparatory education at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts at the same time, although he never became a real student there. Wahlberg enjoyed painting and decided to pursue his father's profession. He started by drawing landscapes, and sold a painting for the first time in 1856 to Konstföreningen (English: The Art Union). In 1857, Wahlberg moved to the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf in Germany to train. He was a student of Hans Fredrik Gude for a short time, but made most of his paintings on his own. Wahlberg's paintings were sold either in Germany or to Konstföreningen in Sweden. Before returning to Stockholm in 1862, he made a trip to the Netherlands and Belgium to further his art studies. Wahlberg's fondness of romantic, dreaming, lyrical, and musical atmospheres is reflected in his paintings depicting the evening and the moonlight's play with tones and light. The most well-known paintings Wahlberg made while living in Düsseldorf are Solnedgång i Bohuslän and Vinterlandskap med björnjakt, both of which depict Swedish forest landscapes. After his return to Stockholm in 1862, Wahlberg painted Storm på holländska kusten (1863), Fors i svensk obygd (largely influenced by Andreas Achenbach), Borgruinen Niedeck vid Rhen (1863), Skogsparti från Särö (1865), Hörningsholm i månsken (1866), and Svenskt insjölandskap från Kolmården (1866). The later is a carefully composed view of an infinite forest (Kolmården), a lake, and a summer sky. The evening sky and the moonlight is depicted in mild, melting colors. The painting became very famous and was displayed at the National Museum of Arts. Although Wahlberg was still restricted by the limits of his technique, the painting was a large progress in his development as a painter. Wahlberg moved to Paris in 1866, and displayed two paintings at the 1868 Paris Salon—both depicting a fishing place in Bohuslän; one of them takes place during the night and one during a sunset. These two paintings mark Wahlberg's transition from a Düsseldorf technique to a then modern French technique. He learned by ease the French school's technique and approach to studies, without imitating the well-known French painters. Wahlberg earned success and was awarded with medals at the Paris Salon in 1870 and 1872, and was credited for bringing the then modern techniques of landscape art to Sweden. Almost every summer he made a short return to Sweden to study the nature in places such as Stockholm archipelago, Skåne, Halland, and Värmland. Among his most famous paintings from this period are Fiskläge vid bohuslänska kusten, Utsikt i Södermanland (view of a meadow and a lake in Södermanland, 1870), Landskap i månsken (landscape in moonlight, 1870), Månsken från södra Frankrike (moonlight in southern France, 1870), Nääs (a summer evening, 1871), I Vaxholm (an autumn day in Vaxholm, 1872), I Fontainebleauskogen (Fontainebleau forest, 1874), Maj i Nizza (May in Nice, 1878), Afton på Hallands Väderö (evening at an island, 1800), Fjällbacka (moonlight, 1881), and Svensk björkhage (1882). At the 1878 World's Fair in Paris, Wahlberg was recognized with a first class medal. Wahlberg's work from the late 1880s and forward includes Stockholms ström (1888), Månsken på Hallands Väderö (1889), Oktobernatt (1893), Popplar (1893), Sol på snö i Marstrand (1901), and Svensk sommarnatt (1901). He died on 4 October 1906 in Tranås. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Wahlberg Thank you, please subscribe for future videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0gMk3w9hw8BbtqoUpEMKeg?sub_confirmation=1
Ary Scheffer volume 1 of 2 - The Portraits Ary Scheffer (1795-1858) was a Dutch-French Romantic painter. He was known mostly for his works based on literature, with paintings based on the works of Dante, Goethe, and Lord Byron, as well as religious subjects. Scheffer was the son of Johan Bernard Scheffer, a portrait painter born in Homberg upon Ohm or Kassel who had moved to the Netherlands in his youth, and Cornelia Lamme, a portrait miniature painter and daughter of the Dordrecht landscape painter Arie Lamme, after whom Arij (later Ary) was named. He had two brothers, the journalist and writer Karel Arnold Scheffer and the painter Hendrik Scheffer. He was taught by his parents and attended the Amsterdam drawing academy from the age of 11. In 1808 his father became court painter of Louis Bonaparte in Amsterdam, but he died a year later. Encouraged by Willem Bilderdijk, he moved to Lille for further study after the death of his father. In 1811 he and his mother, who had a large influence on his career, moved to Paris, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts as a pupil of Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. His brothers followed them later. In 1822, he became drawing teacher to the children of Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orléans. Thanks to his connections with them, he was able to obtain many commissions for portraiture and other work. In 1830, riots against the rule of King Charles X resulted in his overthrow. On 30 July, Scheffer and influential journalist Adolphe Thiers personally rode from Paris to Orléans to ask Louis-Philippe to lead the resistance, and a few days later, he became "King of the French". On 16 March 1850 he married Sophie Marin, the widow of General Baudrand, and on 6 November of that year he finally became a French citizen. He continued his frequent travels to the Netherlands, and made trips to Belgium, Germany and England, but a heart condition slowed him down and eventually ended his life in 1858 in his summer house in Argenteuil. He is buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre. When Scheffer left Guérin's studio, Romanticism had come into vogue in France, with such painters as Xavier Sigalon, Eugène Delacroix and Théodore Géricault. Scheffer did not show much affinity with their work and developed his own style, which has been called "frigidly classical". Scheffer often painted subjects from literature, especially the works of Dante, Byron and Goethe. Two versions of Dante and Beatrice have been preserved at Wolverhampton Art Gallery, United Kingdom, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, US. Particularly highly praised was his Francesca da Rimini, painted in 1836, which illustrates a scene from Dante Alighieri's Inferno. In the piece the entwined bodies of Francesca di Rimini and Paolo Malatesta swirl around in the never-ending tempest that is the second circle of Hell. The illusion of movement is created by the drapery that envelopes the couple, as well as by Francesca's flowing hair. Scheffer's popular Faust-themed paintings include Margaret at her wheel; Faust doubting; Margaret at the Sabbat; Margaret leaving church; The garden walk, and Margaret at the well. In 1836, he painted two pictures of Goethe's character Mignon: Mignon desires her fatherland (1836), and Mignon yearns for heaven (1851). He now turned to religious subjects: Christus Consolator (1836) was followed by Christus Remunerator, The shepherds led by the star (1837), The Magi laying down their crowns, Christ in the Garden of Olives, Christ bearing his Cross, Christ interred (1845), and St Augustine and Monica (1846). One of the reduced versions of his Christus Consolator (the prime version today to be found in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam), lost for 70 years, was rediscovered in a janitor's closet in Gethsemane Lutheran Church in Dassel, Minnesota in 2007. It has been restored and is on display at the Minneapolis Institute of Art. Scheffer was also an accomplished portrait painter, finishing 500 portraits in total. His subjects included composers Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt, the Marquis de la Fayette, Pierre-Jean de Béranger, Alphonse de Lamartine, Charles Dickens, Duchess de Broglie, Talleyrand and Queen Marie Amélie. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ary_Scheffer Thank you, please subscribe for future videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0gMk3w9hw8BbtqoUpEMKeg?sub_confirmation=1
Adolf Schreyer (1828-1899) was a German painter, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.
He studied art first at the Städel Institute in his native town, and then at Stuttgart and Munich.
He painted many of his favourite subjects in his travels in the East.
He first accompanied Maximilian Karl, 6th Prince of Thurn and Taxis through Hungary, Wallachia, Russia and Turkey; then, in 1854, he followed the Austrian army across the Wallachian frontier.
In 1856 he went to Egypt and Syria, and in 1861 to Algiers. In 1862 he settled in Paris, but returned to Germany in 1870; and settled at Cronberg near Frankfurt, where he died.
Schreyer was, and is still, especially esteemed as a painter of horses, of peasant life in Wallachia and Moldavia, and of battle incidents.
His work is remarkable for its excellent equine draughtsmanship, and for the artist's power of observation and forceful statement; and has found particular favour among French and American collectors.
Of his battle-pictures there are two at the Schwerin Gallery, and others in the collection of Count Mensdorff-Pouilly and in the Raven Gallery, Berlin. His painting of a Charge of Artillery of Imperial Guard was formerly at the Luxembourg Museum.
The Metropolitan Museum, New York owns three of Schreyer's oriental paintings: Abandoned, Arabs on the March and Arabs making a detour; and many of his best pictures are in the Rockefeller family, Vanderbilt family, John Jacob Astor, William Backhouse Astor, Sr., August Belmont, and William Walters collections.
At the Kunsthalle in Hamburg is his Wallachian Transport Train, and at the Staedel Institute, Frankfort, are two of his Wallachian scenes
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