Watch These Cunning Snails Stab and Swallow Fish Whole | Deep Look

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The Snail-Smashing, Fish-Spearing, Eye-Popping Mantis Shrimp | Deep Look

The killer punch of the mantis shrimp is the fastest strike in the animal kingdom, a skill that goes hand in hand with its extraordinary eyesight. They can see an invisible level of reality using polarized light, which could lead to a breakthrough in detecting cancer. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Aggressive, reef-dwelling mantis shrimp take more than one first-place ribbon in the animal kingdom. Outwardly resembling their lobster cousins, their colorful shells contain an impressive set of superpowers. There are two types of mantis shrimp, named for their attack mode while hunting prey: smashers and spearers. With their spring-loaded, weaponized legs, these predators can crack a snail shell or harpoon a passing fish in a single punch. The speed of these attacks has earned the mantis shrimp one of their world records: fastest strike in the animal kingdom. Scientists are finding that another of their special abilities -- incredible eyesight -- has potential life-saving implications for people with cancer. Mantis shrimp can perceive the most elusive attribute of light from the human standpoint: polarization. Polarization refers to the angle that light travels through space. Though it’s invisible to the human eye, many animals see this quality of light, especially underwater. But mantis shrimp can see a special kind of polarization, called circular polarization. Scientists have found that some mantis shrimp species use circular polarization to communicate with each other on a kind of secret visual channel for mating and territorial purposes. Inspired by the mantis shrimp’s superlative eyesight, a group of researchers is collaborating to build polarization cameras that would constitute a giant leap for early cancer detection. These cameras see otherwise invisible cancerous tissues by detecting their polarization signature, which is different between diseased and healthy tissues. --- How fast is the mantis shrimp punch? Their strike is about as fast as a .22 caliber rifle bullet. It’s been measured at 50mph. --- What do mantis shrimp eat? The “smasher” mantis shrimp eat hard-shelled creatures like snails and crabs. The “spearers” grab fish, worms, seahorses, and other soft-bodied prey by impaling them. --- Where do mantis shrimp live? In reefs, from the east coast of Africa to the west coast of Australia, and throughout Indonesia. A few species are scattered around the globe, including two in California. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/11/15/the-snail-smashing-fish-spearing-eye-popping-mantis-shrimp/ ---+ For more information: Caldwell Lab at U.C. Berkeley: http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/caldwell/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-RtG5Z-9jQ Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2xqH5h0YY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Physics Girl: The Ultraviolet Catastrophe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXfrncRey-4 Gross Science: What Sound Does An Ant Make? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yif0c0bRA48 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook

This Terrifying Worm Snatches Fish from the Ocean Floor

Sand strikers, also known as bobbit worms, are primitive-looking creatures that lack eyes, or even a brain. Despite this, they are savage predators who shoot out grapple-like hooks to reel in passing fish. From: CRAZY MONSTERS: Diggers http://bit.ly/2io63f4

For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look

Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, make their living just under the surface of the sand, where they're safe from breaking waves and hungry birds. Some very special physics help them dig with astonishing speed. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Among the surfers and beach-casting anglers, there’s a new visitor to San Francisco’s Ocean Beach shoreline. Benjamin McInroe is there for only one reason -- to find Pacific mole crabs, a creature commonly known as “sand crabs” -- and the tiny animals whose burrowing causes millions of small bubbles to appear on the beach as the tide comes in and out. McInroe is a graduate student from UC Berkeley studying biophysics. He wants to know what makes these little creatures so proficient at digging their way through the wet sand. McInroe hopes that he can one day copy their techniques to build a new generation of digging robots. -- What are Pacific Mole Crabs? Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, are crustaceans, related to shrimp and lobsters. They have four pairs of legs and one pair of specialized legs in the front called uropods that look like paddles for digging in sand. Pacific mole crabs burrow through wet sand and stick their antennae out to catch bits of kelp and other debris kicked up by the breaking waves. -- What makes those holes in the sand at the beach? When the waves recede, mole crabs burrow down into the sand to keep from being exposed. They dig tail-first very quickly leaving holes in the wet sand. The holes bubble as water seeps into the holes and the air escapes. -- What do birds eat in the wet beach sand? Shore birds like seagulls rush down the beach as the waves recede to catch mole crabs that haven’t burrowed down quickly enough to escape. The birds typically run or fly away as the next wave breaks and rolls in. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/02/13/for-pacific-mole-crabs-its-dig-or-die/ ---+ For more information: Benjamin McInroe, a Ph.D. student at UC Berkeley, studies how Pacific mole crabs burrow https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~bmcinroe/ Professor Robert Full directs the Poly-PEDAL Lab at UC Berkeley, where researchers study the physics of how animals and use that knowledge to build mechanical systems like robots based on their findings. http://polypedal.berkeley.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look https://youtu.be/OwQcv7TyX04 These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look https://youtu.be/j5F3z1iP0Ic Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look https://youtu.be/ak2xqH5h0YY There's Something Very Fishy About These Trees ... | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? | Origin of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOeFRg_1_Yg Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g246c6Bv58 ---+ Follow KQED Science KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook

This Adorable Sea Slug is a Sneaky Little Thief | Deep Look

Take the PBSDS survey: https://to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Explore our VR slug and support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Nudibranchs may look cute, squishy and defenseless ... but watch out. These brightly-colored sea slugs aren't above stealing weapons from their prey. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. The summer months bring low morning tides along the California coast, providing an opportunity to see one of the state’s most unusual inhabitants, sea slugs. Also called nudibranchs, many of these relatives of snails are brightly colored and stand out among the seaweed and anemones living next to them in tidepools. “Some of them are bright red, blue, yellow -- you name it,” said Terry Gosliner, senior curator of invertebrate zoology and geology at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. “They're kind of designer slugs.” But without a protective shell, big jaws or sharp claws, how do these squishy little creatures get away with such flamboyant colors in a habitat full of predators? As it turns out, the nudibranchs’ colors serve as a warning to predators: These sea slugs are packing some very sophisticated defenses. And some aren’t above stealing weapons from their prey. Gosliner and Brenna Green and Emily Otstott, graduate students at San Francisco State University, were out at dawn earlier this summer searching tidepools and floating docks around the Bay Area. They want to learn more about how these delicate little sea slugs survive and how changing ocean temperatures might threaten their futures. Nudibranchs come in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. Many accumulate toxic or bad-tasting chemicals from their prey, causing predators like fish and crabs to learn that the flashy colors mean the nudibranch wouldn’t make a good meal. --- What are nudibranchs? Nudibranchs are snails that lost their shell over evolutionary time. Since they don’t have a shell for protection, they have to use other ways to defend themselves like accumulating toxic chemicals in their flesh to make them taste bad to predators. Some species of nudibranchs eat relatives of jellyfish and accumulate the stingers within their bodies for defense. --- Why do nudibranchs have such bright colors? The bright colors serve as a signal to the nudibranch’s predators that they are not good to eat. If a fish or crab bites a nudibranch, it learns to associate the bad taste with the bright colors which tends to make them reluctant to bite a nudibranch with those colors in the future. --- What does nudibranch mean? The word nudibranch comes from Latin. It means naked gills. They got that name because some species of nudibranchs have an exposed ring of gills on their back that they use to breath. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1929993/this-adorable-sea-slug-is-a-sneaky-little-thief ---+ For more information: Learn more about Terry Gosliner’s work with nudibranchs https://www.calacademy.org/staff/ibss/invertebrate-zoology-and-geology/terrence-gosliner Learn more about Chris Lowe’s work with plankton http://lowe.stanford.edu/ Learn more about Jessica Goodheart’s study of nematocyst sequestration https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ivb.12154 ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: From Drifter to Dynamo: The Story of Plankton | Deep Look https://youtu.be/jUvJ5ANH86I For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look https://youtu.be/tfoYD8pAsMw The Amazing Life of Sand | Deep Look https://youtu.be/VkrQ9QuKprE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Why Are Hurricanes Getting Stronger? | Hot Mess https://youtu.be/2E1Nt7JQRzc When Fish Wore Armor | Eons https://youtu.be/5pVTZH1LyTw Why Do We Wash Our Hands After Going to the Bathroom? | Origin of Everything https://youtu.be/fKlpGs34-_g ---+ Follow KQED Science and Deep Look: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kqedscience/ Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience KQED Science on kqed.org: http://www.kqed.org/science Facebook Watch: https://www.facebook.com/DeepLookPBS/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/deeplook ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook #nudibranch #seaslug

A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You | Deep Look

Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook The South American palm weevil is bursting onto the scene in California. Its arrival could put one of the state’s most cherished botanical icons at risk of oblivion. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Summer means vacation time, and nothing says, “Welcome to paradise!” quite like a palm tree. Though it’s home to only one native species, California has nonetheless adopted the palm as a quintessential icon. But a new snake in California’s palm tree-lined garden may soon put all that to the test. Dozens of palms in San Diego’s Sweetwater Summit Regional Park, about 10 miles from the Mexican border, are looking more like sad, upside-down umbrellas than the usual bursts of botanical joy. The offender is the South American palm weevil, a recent arrival to the U.S. that’s long been widespread in the tropics. Large, black, shiny, and possessed of an impressive proboscis (nose), the weevil prefers the king of palms, the Canary Island date palm, also known as the “pineapple palm” for the distinctive way it’s typically pruned. A palm tree is basically a gigantic cake-pop, an enormous ball of veggie goodness on a stick. The adult female palm weevil uses her long snout to drill tunnels into that goodness—known to science as the “apical meristem” and to your grocer as the “heart” of the palm—where she lays her eggs. When her larvae hatch, their food is all around them. And they start to eat. If the South American palm weevil consolidates its foothold in California, then the worst might still be to come. While these weevils generally stick to the Canary Island palms, they can harbor a parasitic worm that causes red-ring disease—a fatal infection that can strike almost any palm, including the state’s precious native, the California fan. --- Where do South American Palm Weevils come from? Originally, Brazil and Argentina. They’ve become common wherever there are Canary Island Palm trees, however, which includes Europe, the Mediterranean, the Middle East. --- How do they kill palm trees? Their larvae eat the apical meristem, which is the sweet part of the plant sometimes harvested and sold commercially as the “heart of palm.” --- How do you get rid of them? If the palm weevils infest a tree, it’s very hard to save it, since they live on the inside, where they escape both detection and pesticides. Neighboring palm trees can be sprayed for protection. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/06/20/a-real-alien-invasion-is-coming-to-a-palm-tree-near-you ---+ For more information: Visit the UC Riverside Center for invasive Species Research: http://cisr.ucr.edu/invasive_species.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQcv7TyX04 Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOcLaI44TXA ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Gross Science: Meet The Frog That Barfs Up Its Babies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xfX_NTrFRM Brain Craft: Mutant Menu: If you could, would you design your DNA? And should you be able to? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrDM6Ic2xMM ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #palmweevil

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Cone Snails have an arsenal of tools and weapons under their pretty shells. These reef-dwelling hunters nab their prey in microseconds, then slowly eat them alive.

SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt

DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small.

New research shows that cone snails — ocean-dwelling mollusks known for their brightly colored shells — attack their prey faster than almost any member of the animal kingdom.

There are hundreds of species of these normally slow-moving hunters found in oceans across the world. They take down fish, worms and other snails using a hollow, harpoon-like tooth that acts like a spear and a hypodermic needle. When they impale their prey, cone snails inject a chemical cocktail that subdues their meal and gives them time to dine at their leisure.

Cone snails launch their harpoons so quickly that scientists were previously unable to capture the movement on camera, making it impossible to calculate just how speedy these snails are. Now, using super-high-speed video, researchers have filmed the full flight of the harpoon for the first time.

From start to finish, the harpoon’s flight takes less than 200 micro-seconds. That’s one five-thousandth of a second. It launches with an acceleration equivalent to a bullet fired from a pistol.

So how do these sedentary snails pull off such a high-octane feat? Hydrostatic pressure — the pressure from fluid — builds within the half of the snail’s proboscis closest to its body, locked behind a tight o-ring of muscle. When it comes time to strike, the muscle relaxes, and the venom-laced fluid punches into the harpoon’s bulbous base. This pressure launches the harpoon out into the snail’s unsuspecting prey.

As fast as the harpoon launches, it comes to an even more abrupt stop. The base of the harpoon gets caught at the end of the proboscis so the snail can reel in its meal.

The high-speed action doesn’t stop with the harpoon. Cone snail venom acts fast, subduing fish in as little as a few seconds. The venom is filled with unique molecules, broadly referred to as conotoxins.

The composition of cone snail venom varies from species to species, and even between individuals of the same species, creating a library of potential new drugs that researchers are eager to mine. In combination, these chemicals work together to rapidly paralyze a cone snail’s prey. Individually, some molecules from cone snail venom can provide non-opioid pain relief, and could potentially treat Parkinson’s disease or cancer.

--- Where do cone snails live?

There are 500 species of cone snails living in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the Caribbean and Red Seas, and the Florida coast.

--- Can cone snails kill humans?

Most of them do not. Only eight of those 500 species, including the geography cone, have been known to kill humans.

--- Why are scientists interested in cone snails?

Cone snail venom is derived from thousands of small molecules call peptides that the snail makes under its shell. These peptides produce different effects on cells, which scientists hope to manipulate in the treatment of various diseases.

---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science:
https://wp.me/p6iq8L-84uC

---+ For more information:

Here’s what WebMD says about treating a cone snail sting:
https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cone-snail-sting

---+ More Great Deep Look episodes:

This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY

Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning
https://youtu.be/O-0SFWPLaII

---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios!

Space Time: Quantum Mechanics Playlist
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Above The Noise: Endangered Species: Worth Saving from Extinction?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5eTqjzQZDY

---+ Follow KQED Science:

KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science
Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com
Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience

---+ About KQED

KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
#deeplook

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