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You might suppose this catfish is sick, or just confused. But swimming belly-up actually helps it camouflage and breathe better than its right-side-up cousins. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Normally, an upside-down fish in your tank is bad news. As in, it’s time for a new goldfish. That’s because most fish have an internal air sac called a “swim bladder” that allows them to control their buoyancy and orientation. They fill the bladder with air when they want to rise, and deflate it when they want to sink. Fish without swim bladders, like sharks, have to swim constantly to keep from dropping to the bottom. If an aquarium fish is listing to one side or flops over on its back, it often means it has swim bladder disease, a potentially life-threatening condition usually brought on parasites, overfeeding, or high nitrate levels in the water. But for a few remarkable fish, being upside-down means everything is great. In fact, seven species of catfish native to Central Africa live most of their lives upended. These topsy-turvy swimmers are anatomically identical to their right-side up cousins, despite having such an unusual orientation. People’s fascination with the odd alignment of these fish goes back centuries. Studies of these quizzical fish have found a number of reasons why swimming upside down makes a lot of sense. In an upside-down position, fish produce a lot less wave drag. That means upside-down catfish do a better job feeding on insect larvae at the waterline than their right-side up counterparts, who have to return to deeper water to rest. There’s something else at the surface that’s even more important to a fish’s survival than food: oxygen. The gas essential to life readily dissolves from the air into the water, where it becomes concentrated in a thin layer at the waterline — right where the upside-down catfish’s mouth and gills are perfectly positioned to get it. Scientists estimate that upside-down catfishes have been working out their survival strategy for as long at 35 million years. Besides their breathing and feeding behavior, the blotched upside-down catfish from the Congo Basin has also evolved a dark patch on its underside to make it harder to see against dark water. That coloration is remarkable because it’s the opposite of most sea creatures, which tend to be darker on top and lighter on the bottom, a common adaptation called “countershading” that offsets the effects of sunlight. The blotched upside-down catfish’s “reverse” countershading has earned it the scientific name negriventris, which means black-bellied. --- How many kinds of fish swim upside down? A total of seven species in Africa swim that way. Upside-down swimming may have evolved independent in a few of the species – and at least one more time in a catfish from Asia. --- How do fish stay upright? They have an air-filled swim bladder on the inside that that they can fill or deflate to maintain balance or to move up or down in the water column. --- What are the benefits of swimming upside down? Upside down, a fish swims more efficiently at the waterline, where there’s more oxygen and better access to some prey. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1922038/the-mystery-of-the-upside-down-catfish ---+ For more information: The California Academy of Sciences has upside-down catfish in its aquarium collection: https://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/steinhart-aquarium ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning https://youtu.be/O-0SFWPLaII This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards https://youtu.be/E2unnSK7WTE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rvgiDXc12k Origin of Everything: The Origin of Race in the USA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVxAlmAPHec ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED. #deeplook
The killer punch of the mantis shrimp is the fastest strike in the animal kingdom, a skill that goes hand in hand with its extraordinary eyesight. They can see an invisible level of reality using polarized light, which could lead to a breakthrough in detecting cancer. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Aggressive, reef-dwelling mantis shrimp take more than one first-place ribbon in the animal kingdom. Outwardly resembling their lobster cousins, their colorful shells contain an impressive set of superpowers. There are two types of mantis shrimp, named for their attack mode while hunting prey: smashers and spearers. With their spring-loaded, weaponized legs, these predators can crack a snail shell or harpoon a passing fish in a single punch. The speed of these attacks has earned the mantis shrimp one of their world records: fastest strike in the animal kingdom. Scientists are finding that another of their special abilities -- incredible eyesight -- has potential life-saving implications for people with cancer. Mantis shrimp can perceive the most elusive attribute of light from the human standpoint: polarization. Polarization refers to the angle that light travels through space. Though it’s invisible to the human eye, many animals see this quality of light, especially underwater. But mantis shrimp can see a special kind of polarization, called circular polarization. Scientists have found that some mantis shrimp species use circular polarization to communicate with each other on a kind of secret visual channel for mating and territorial purposes. Inspired by the mantis shrimp’s superlative eyesight, a group of researchers is collaborating to build polarization cameras that would constitute a giant leap for early cancer detection. These cameras see otherwise invisible cancerous tissues by detecting their polarization signature, which is different between diseased and healthy tissues. --- How fast is the mantis shrimp punch? Their strike is about as fast as a .22 caliber rifle bullet. It’s been measured at 50mph. --- What do mantis shrimp eat? The “smasher” mantis shrimp eat hard-shelled creatures like snails and crabs. The “spearers” grab fish, worms, seahorses, and other soft-bodied prey by impaling them. --- Where do mantis shrimp live? In reefs, from the east coast of Africa to the west coast of Australia, and throughout Indonesia. A few species are scattered around the globe, including two in California. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/11/15/the-snail-smashing-fish-spearing-eye-popping-mantis-shrimp/ ---+ For more information: Caldwell Lab at U.C. Berkeley: http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/caldwell/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-RtG5Z-9jQ Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2xqH5h0YY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Physics Girl: The Ultraviolet Catastrophe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXfrncRey-4 Gross Science: What Sound Does An Ant Make? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yif0c0bRA48 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
They are killers. They kill with unbelievable precision. They fight Kung Fu style and are seen in Japan as a symbol of vigilance - the mantises. Their triangular head with its unique flexibility is conspicuous. Two overdimensioned eyes fixate the distance to their prey rapidly and three-dimensionally. The chest segment of the mantis is prolonged and equipped with spiny appendages that can spear their prey as fast as a jack knife. The mysterious aura that surrounds the praying mantis has a lot to do with the fact that they are rarely seen. They have adapted to their surroundings perfectly. No matter whether leaves, blossoms, tree bark, sandy floors or even orchids - the mantis adjusts to all environments. We observe mantises with our cameras whilst they are hunting, when they shed their skin and whilst breeding and eventually the females practicing their cannibalism. We were also on hand when the female produces a nest of foam on which to lay her eggs; all filmed with time lapse and real-time cameras. A film, that comprehensively documents the secret life of the mantises for the very first time and provides us with unique footage thanks to state of the art equipment.
As a hermit crab grows its shell becomes a tighter fit so eventually the crabs need to move into a bigger one, leading to an amazing exchange. Taken from Life Story. Subscribe to BBC Earth: http://bit.ly/ydxvrP Watch David Attenborough Dynasties series trailer here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWI1eCbksdE --~-- WATCH MORE: New on Earth: https://bit.ly/2M3La96 Oceanscapes: https://bit.ly/2Hmd2kZ Wild Thailand: https://bit.ly/2kR7lmh Welcome to BBC EARTH! The world is an amazing place full of stories, beauty and natural wonder. Here you'll find 50 years worth of astounding, entertaining, thought-provoking and educational natural history content. Dramatic, rare, and exclusive, nature doesn't get more exciting than this. Want to share your views with the team? Join our fan panel: http://tinyurl.com/YouTube-BBCEarth-FanPanel This is a page from BBC Studios who help fund new BBC programmes. Service information and feedback: http://bbcworldwide.com/vod-feedback--contact-details.aspx
Check out the CRAZIEST Cases Of MIND CONTROL In Nature! From brain controlled robot beetles to ants getting mind controlled by parasitic wasps, this top 10 list of amazing mind control techniques will shock you! Subscribe For New Videos! http://goo.gl/UIzLeB Watch our "REAL Mermaid Sightings Around The World!" video here: https://youtu.be/ChM0CBRmVsM Watch our "10 Sea Monsters ATTACKING A Boat!" video here: https://youtu.be/0XROvoPCDNc Watch our "STRANGEST Animals People Keep As Pets!" video here: https://youtu.be/OMa96nPqz-Y 10.) Euhaplorchis Californiensis The Euhaplorchis Californiensis is a parasite that is primarily found in southern California. These parasites live on the gut of shorebirds. Once the very tiny eggs of these parasites develop, they are released into the waters through the shorebirds’ feces. These eggs will live and develop into larva if they are swallowed up by snails. 9.) Acacia Trees Ants and acacia trees have had a relationship for generations. For the longest time, people just assumed this is how it was and no one really looked into the reasoning for this relationship. That was until some scientists discovered that the relationship is actually more one sided than what people have previously thought. 8.) Phorid Flies Phorid flies are very tiny flies that love to take over ants. Over 20 species of Pseudacteon flies are known to take over fire ants in South America. As an adult they are about the size of an ant’s head. The female fly attacks the ant to insert anywhere from 100 to 300 of its eggs into its thorax. 7.) The Alcon Blue Butterfly There is a beautiful parasitic butterfly which is known to fool ants. These butterflies are called the Alcon blue butterfly and before they turn into butterflies, they manipulate ants into taking care of them. They basically do this in the same way that the Toxoplasma Gondii parasite in mice fools cats. 6.) Hairworms and Grasshoppers A parasite known as Spinochordodes Tellinii or more simply the hairworm, develops inside the grasshopper. The worm then slowly begins to eat all the grasshopper’s internal organs, leaving just the legs, head, and outer shell. The worm can grow to be much bigger than the grasshopper, about three to four times bigger!! 5.) Toxoplasma Gondii Toxoplasma Gondii is a parasite that can actually change your behaviour and how you act, especially towards your cat. It is more commonly called Toxoplasmosis, which is the name of the infection Toxoplasma Gondii creates. Turns out that domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts where the parasite can reproduce and the CDC says that about 40 million people in the United States alone, may be infected and not even know it!! 4.) Spiny-Headed Worm Like the Euhaplorchis Californiensis, the Acanthocephalans is a gut dwelling parasite. More simply known as the thorny-headed or spiny-headed worm, the adult worm dwells in the guts of a common bird known as the starling. This worm can vary in length as it can be several millimeters and grow up to ten centimeters 3.) Castrator Barnacles The castrator barnacles, more commonly known as the Sacculina carcini, is a parasite that grows inside a crab. But as you can imagine, it’s called “the castrator” for a reason. The larva seek out unsuspecting crab and enters its shell from where it is the most vulnerable. It becomes a living syringe and attaches itself into the bloodstream. 2.) Glyptapanteles Wasp The Glyptapanteles is a genus of wasp that turn caterpillars into zombies. The female wasps inject their eggs into caterpillars which are already alive and well. From there, the eggs hatch and the larvae start to grow. As they are growing, they slowly start taking over the caterpillar, feeding on its fluids and taking over its mind to turn it into a bodyguard that protects them. 1.) Cyborg Beetle Scientists from two different universities have used biology to create robots that can match the agility and efficiency of animals. The Cyborg Beetle is a little biobot that can be used for search and rescue missions and as a spying tool. Origins Explained is the place to be to find all the answers to your questions, from mysterious events and unsolved mysteries to everything there is to know about the world and its amazing animals!
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Cone Snails have an arsenal of tools and weapons under their pretty shells. These reef-dwelling hunters nab their prey in microseconds, then slowly eat them alive.
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New research shows that cone snails — ocean-dwelling mollusks known for their brightly colored shells — attack their prey faster than almost any member of the animal kingdom.
There are hundreds of species of these normally slow-moving hunters found in oceans across the world. They take down fish, worms and other snails using a hollow, harpoon-like tooth that acts like a spear and a hypodermic needle. When they impale their prey, cone snails inject a chemical cocktail that subdues their meal and gives them time to dine at their leisure.
Cone snails launch their harpoons so quickly that scientists were previously unable to capture the movement on camera, making it impossible to calculate just how speedy these snails are. Now, using super-high-speed video, researchers have filmed the full flight of the harpoon for the first time.
From start to finish, the harpoon’s flight takes less than 200 micro-seconds. That’s one five-thousandth of a second. It launches with an acceleration equivalent to a bullet fired from a pistol.
So how do these sedentary snails pull off such a high-octane feat? Hydrostatic pressure — the pressure from fluid — builds within the half of the snail’s proboscis closest to its body, locked behind a tight o-ring of muscle. When it comes time to strike, the muscle relaxes, and the venom-laced fluid punches into the harpoon’s bulbous base. This pressure launches the harpoon out into the snail’s unsuspecting prey.
As fast as the harpoon launches, it comes to an even more abrupt stop. The base of the harpoon gets caught at the end of the proboscis so the snail can reel in its meal.
The high-speed action doesn’t stop with the harpoon. Cone snail venom acts fast, subduing fish in as little as a few seconds. The venom is filled with unique molecules, broadly referred to as conotoxins.
The composition of cone snail venom varies from species to species, and even between individuals of the same species, creating a library of potential new drugs that researchers are eager to mine. In combination, these chemicals work together to rapidly paralyze a cone snail’s prey. Individually, some molecules from cone snail venom can provide non-opioid pain relief, and could potentially treat Parkinson’s disease or cancer.
--- Where do cone snails live?
There are 500 species of cone snails living in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the Caribbean and Red Seas, and the Florida coast.
--- Can cone snails kill humans?
Most of them do not. Only eight of those 500 species, including the geography cone, have been known to kill humans.
--- Why are scientists interested in cone snails?
Cone snail venom is derived from thousands of small molecules call peptides that the snail makes under its shell. These peptides produce different effects on cells, which scientists hope to manipulate in the treatment of various diseases.
---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science:
---+ For more information:
Here’s what WebMD says about treating a cone snail sting:
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KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.
Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.