Added: Gianfranco Hitchens - Date: 24.09.2021 10:11 - Views: 36642 - Clicks: 9713
Department of Energy DOE. Research and support operations at LLNL handle, generate or manage hazardous materials that include radioactive wastes. Facility operations contaminated soil and groundwater with hazardous chemicals. The Site was converted from agricultural use when the U. Navy began operating the Livermore Naval Air Station in The Navy used the Site until as a flight training base and for aircraft assembly, repair, and overhaul.
Solvents, paints, and degreasers were routinely used during this period. Under the AEC, the Site became a weapons de and basic physics research laboratory. Inthe Site was established as a separate part of the University of California Radiation Laboratory.
Responsibility for the Site was transferred to the Energy, Research, and Development Administration in and then to the U. Department of Energy in There is evidence that localized spills, unlined disposal pits and landfills, and leaking tanks and impoundments contributed to the release of volatile organic compounds, fuel hydrocarbons, metals, and tritium during the laboratory operations that occurred after the Navy left the Site.
The Lab began environmental assessments in the s. Atomic Energy Commission, predecessor to DOE, primarily as a high-explosives and materials testing site in support of nuclear weapons research, and is located 15 miles east of LLNL. This site is being addressed as a federal facility with DOE as the lead agency.
The site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial phase focused on cleanup of the entire site. Efforts included the excavation and removal of 4, cubic yards of contaminated soil from several waste disposal pits to certified off-site disposal sites and closure of an inactive landfill, with subsequent removal of about 14, cubic yards of contaminated soil. LLNL also provided alternative water supplies to residents with wells affected by contamination. Over the past several years, LLNL constructed several treatment plants for groundwater pumping and treatment and for soil vapor extraction SVE.
These systems will continue to operate until cleanup standards are achieved. Innovative technologies have played an important role in the remediation of soil and groundwater at the LLNL site. A large part of a 10,gallon gasoline spill was remediated within two years using a dynamic underground steam stripping system. Three-dimensional characterization of the subsurface and the use of Portable Treatment Units PTUs have allowed engineers to address water bearing units for easier plume capture through targeted pumping and treatment.
Advanced vadose zone modeling has helped improve mass removal rates of soil contamination by increasing the effectiveness of the SVE system. Catalytic reductive dehalogenation CRD units are used in a closed loop system to treat volatile organic compounds VOCs in groundwater that is also contaminated with tritium.
The tritiated groundwater remains in the subsurface and undergoes natural radioactive decay. InLLNL began an optimization phase for groundwater cleanup. Technologies are being evaluated to speed the cleanup of VOCs and augment the existing extraction and treatment facilities in place. They include in-situ bioremediationethyl lactate, hydro fracking and zero valent iron, as well as technologies to isolate the tritium.
InDOE ed an Explanation of ificant Differences adding and implementing institutional controls coordination and reporting to Zone 7 Water Company to the remedy to address the off-site groundwater plumes. In the Five Year Review, EPA deferred short- and long-term protectiveness at the site due to inadequate characterization of the Vapor Intrusion pathway.
DOE has since undertaken a large prioritization sampling effort to address this issue. Inat the regulatory agencys' insistence, the Lab began screening indoor air in the facility's buildings for potential Vapor Intrusion VI by volatile organic compounds VOCs in the groundwater and soil gas. By the end ofthe Lab will have addressed approximately 20 of the top tier buildings. The removal of contaminated soil, provision of alternate drinking water supplies and use of groundwater and soil vapor treatment systems have reduced the potential of exposure to contaminated materials at the site while studies continue and cleanup activities are being conducted.
The remedy will continue to operate until cleanup standards are achieved. Operations and Maintenance phase.
Treatability Studies have been underway to evaluate in-situ bioaugmentation, impermeable barrier comprised of zero-valent iron, hydro-fracking and soil heating. At this site, activity and use limitations that EPA calls institutional controls are in place. Institutional controls play an important role in site remedies because they reduce exposure to contamination by limiting land or resource use.
They also guide human behavior. For instance, zoning restrictions prevent land uses — such as residential uses — that are not consistent with the level of cleanup. For more background, see Institutional Controls. This is a highly controlled facility, with restricted access. The site is used for industrial activities. The site has several hundred monitoring wells and groundwater extraction wells that are monitored on a regular basis. There is also regular reevaluation of the inhalation risk for VOCs migrating from subsurface soil into indoor ambient air, including the sampling of a prioritized list of buildings.
InDOE shut down or failed to repair 28 groundwater and soil vapor treatment facilities due to budget cuts. On Jan. DuringDOE brought the shuttered facilities back into operational status. What Is the Current Site Status?
Initial Actions: Efforts included the excavation and removal of 4, cubic yards of contaminated soil from several waste disposal pits to certified off-site disposal sites and closure of an inactive landfill, with subsequent removal of about 14, cubic yards of contaminated soil. Cleanup Progress The removal of contaminated soil, provision of alternate drinking water supplies and use of groundwater and soil vapor treatment systems have reduced the potential of exposure to contaminated materials at the site while studies continue and cleanup activities are being conducted.
Top of Sampling and Monitoring The site has several hundred monitoring wells and groundwater extraction wells that are monitored on a regular basis. Top of Enforcement Information InDOE shut down or failed to repair 28 groundwater and soil vapor treatment facilities due to budget cuts. Top of .Livermore naval Livermore
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