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Lonely fort in an azure sea tops our finds in far-flung Florida By Brian J. But there was nothing of tiny paper umbrellas about Jack. Wildly bearded and built like a rum barrel, he wore a wrinkled cotton hat with a leather strap that would hold it on in a hurricane. Around the edges poked scraggles of gray hair above clear blue eyes.
I hoisted my knapsack, ready to ship out with him for a remote smattering of sand-and-coral islands that have a long history as a home to buccaneers, masked boobies, yellow-fever victims and an infamous assassin's co-conspirators.
A smart vacation choice?
Tortugas Jack, aka Jack Hackett, a former Chicago saloonkeeper and self-professed "poet sailor," was my guide for the day. Me and 99 others, aboard the high-speed catamaran Yankee Freedom, bound for a day of exploration, bird-watching those boobies and snorkeling.
The site of America's largest 19th-century coastal fort — a well-preserved million-brick structure complete with an honest-to-God moat — the Dry Tortugas were the most exotic of my finds in a week of off-highway adventures at the far end of Florida. A fort the size of Safeco Field? On a pirate island that nobody north of Pensacola has ever heard of? You couldn't keep me away. The three-hour boat ride gave me time to enjoy a catered breakfast, chat with a gaggle of Fort Lauderdale widows who shared my table, and read up on the oddball history of the Dry Tortugas "tor-TOO-guz".
The islands originated about 8, years ago when rising sea levels deposited coral rubble and sediments on an ancient coral reef— "The Turtles" — for their population of sea turtleswhich still nest there April to October. Treasure fleets in their day sailed past the Tortugas on the voyage to Spain, and the islets became a pirate nest as well. The likes of English freebooter John Hawkins anchored there to lay in stores of fish, birds and eggs.
Mariners added the label "Dry" to nautical charts to warn of the Tortugas' lack of fresh water. Speeding westward in the sun, we saw just how little there is between Key West and anything. The largest island of the Tortugas is only a mile long by a half-mile wide. For more than years, not much happened there besides prolific breeding by turtles and seabirds. Then inFlorida became a state and the Tortugas became a military reservation. Within a year, the U. Water world, with cannons "Laaaaand ho!
Laa-aand ho-ooo! A dark line on the horizon soon took shape into an odd vision in a watery world: a mammoth structure of red brick. Some walls dropped straight into the azure sea, and others were edged by white sand and palm trees. A black lighthouse towered near a tall white pole where an American flag snapped in the breeze.
As we drew closer, the decorative scalloping atop the fort, the drawbridge, the moat, and the riot of color with varicolored brick surrounded by every hue of green and blue was a sight suited to Disney. But we were far from Orlando. At first an outpost from which to protect shipping between the Mississippi River and East Coast, Fort Jefferson later was a Union stronghold in the Civil War blockade of the Confederacy.
From a small wharf, our choices included walking the seawall that formed the moat. I ed the tour, waiting with others by the drawbridge. They rode ocean winds for hours without a flap. Hackett began the tour by answering a question on everyone's mind: Why on earth did they need a moat around a fort surrounded by ocean? Answer: What was important was the outer seawall, acting as a buffer between battering waves and the fort's foundation.
It also prevented enemies from bringing boats in to where invaders could scale the fort's walls. We crossed the drawbridge and spent an hour exploring shadowy gunrooms, climbing echoing circular staircases and stepping carefully atop high walls. The view on one side was of the fort's lush parade ground, now dotted with palms and buttonwoods. On the other side, a scarf of white sand and coral-studded water.
Despite a monumental effort over almost 30 years to build what was nicknamed "the Gibraltar of the Gulf" on 12 acres of acre Garden Key, parts of the fort were never completed.
It never fired a shot in battle, and new brick-piercing cannons rendered it obsolete while still under construction. After years of struggle with water shortages, a yellow-fever outbreak that killed 38 people, and a pummeling hurricane, the military abandoned Fort Jefferson in While home to hundreds of soldiers in its day, the fort was best known as a Civil War-era prison, mostly for POWs and Union deserters. Its most famous prisoner was Dr.
Samuel A. The Maryland physician was sentenced to life at hard labor for setting the leg that John Wilkes Booth broke in a leap from a Ford's Theater balcony after shooting President Abraham Lincoln in At the remote prison, Mudd and three others convicted of complicity with Booth were well out of reach of Southern sympathizers who might want to help them escape, making at least one good use of this white elephant in the middle of a dreamy blue sea.
In the end, though, Mudd was a savior. When the fort's doctor died of yellow fever, Mudd stepped in to minister to the sick. After four years, Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson, pardoned Mudd. For soldiers, Tortugas life was plagued by smothering summer heat, a tedious diet of fish and more fish, and boredom that gnawed like a toothache.
According to a soldier's diary, "at times a group of us would steal over to Loggerhead Key for strong drink and to shout at the stars. Happily, snorkel gear came with the boat ride; all the way down the Keys I'd heard that Dry Tortugas snorkeling was Florida's best. Not in the moat, though. That was just a rumor.
While the moat was off-limits, snorkeling outside the walls was something special. In warm water no more than 5 feet deep, I scissored my legs slowly and followed the sea wall, its underwater bricks crusted with coral, a playground for darting fish in neon stripes. A purple sea fan as big as a banana leaf waved in the ocean surge, and as I passed, a spiny brittle star tucked spidery legs under a pile of fallen brick.
Where the sea had punched a deep hole in the wall, a pound grouper lurked like a mugger in a dark doorway. Turtles from Spain Other wildlife prospers in the Tortugas. Endangered green sea turtles and threatened loggerhead turtles, up to 4 feet long, bury clutches of more than eggs on its beaches each spring when they arrive from wintering grounds near Spain. Sea turtles, like salmon, imprint on their birthplace and return to breed. Once ing in the many millions across the Caribbean, green turtles were decimated by commercial soup-canning operations in the Keys that continued well into the 20th century.
National Park biologists have monitored sea-turtle nesting within the park sincemarking the specially shaped mounds of sand on the beach. With the Tortugas as a refuge, there's hope: Biologists recorded more than 2, turtle "crawls" in four recent nesting seasons on only three miles of beach. On a major north-south flyway, the islands are also a destination for bird-watchersa reputation dating to an visit by John James Audubon.
From March to September, somesooty terns nest on Bush Key, where females lay single eggs in simple depressions in the warm sand. Among more than species found here, others often seen include brown noddies, masked and brown boobies, roseate terns, double-crested cormorants, and brown pelicans, in addition to magnificent frigatebirds. For wildlife lovers, it's the stuff of poetry. Before we boarded the boat for the obligatory trip back to the rest of the world, Tortugas Jack recited his own haiku about frigatebirds: "Beneath playing clouds Soars magnificent frigate Above sleeping man.
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