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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This document provides a description of our organization mission, vision, and commitment to improving the health and well-being of women and girls globally. Despite progress in eliminating the social and health disparity between men and women during the last century, gender equality remains an elusive goal, particularly in the developing world.

In many countries, women and girls have less access to education, an important predictor of well-being Bobbitt-Zeher, Impoverishment equates not only to hunger and sickness, but also to disempowerment and marginalization. As a result, many women and girls are subject to violence and other human rights abuses. Women and girls have specific health needs, and health systems around the world are failing them World Health Organization [WHO], We believe it is important that these goals are not dealt with independently; many of them are closely interrelated, as development in one area will promote improvement in another.

Depending on the global region and social, political, and economic climate, a range of activities and strategies are required to achieve optimal health outcomes. In all instances, strategic initiatives need to be undertaken within a framework of cultural competence and consideration of the health and well-being of women and girls across the life span.

Exploring the biological, socio-economic, cultural, political, and spiritual factors affecting the health and development of women and girls. Examining the relationships between and among socio-cultural structures that influence the health and well-being of women and girls.

Identifying areas of need and facilitating, implementing, and evaluating solutions to potential and actual health problems of women and girls of all ages. In most societies, women have lower social status than men, producing unequal power relations. For this reason, women and girls can be particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses and suffer poor health outcomes as a result. Arguably, women need special attention when framing an agenda for global health due to the fact that women are biologically different from men and therefore have different needs throughout their lifespan Sankaran, A gender-based approach is established on the recognition of the differences between men and women.

Despite much effort toward creating gender equality, women remain vulnerable, with many women still not able to experience enjoyment of their fundamental human rights. For the MDGs to effectively redress the inequalities experienced by women and ensure a healthier future, a gender-based approach must be considered for each of these goals. A gendered approach means not only examining biological differences but also the socially constructed expectations that differentiate the roles and attributes of men and women Correa-de-Araujo, ; Pinn, Increasingly, policymakers and nongovernment organizations have determined that the health and well-being of communities and societies is dependent on the welfare, education, and empowerment of women.

In some regions, such as Asia and Oceania, the percentage of impoverished people in the region has more than halved sincesurpassing the WHO target for UN, Across all ages of women, the highest mortality and disability rates are found in Africa WHO, While socioeconomic status plays a large role in health and well-being, social networks and individual factors are also important. In order to address social determinants of health and achieve gender equality, the following factors need to be considered Marmot, :. Globally, despite a net increase in enrollments, a gender gap persists in education attainment.

In many countries, educating girls is widely perceived as being of less value than educating boys UN, It is estimated that one in every five primary school age girls are unenrolled, compared with one in every six boys Lavin, In all countries with reliable data, child mortality rates are highest in households where the education of the mother is lowest WHO, In there were approximately million illiterate women in the world, as compared with million men.

The ICOWHI seeks to promote education initiatives because of the positive correlation between education and health outcomes. Education not only needs to be addressed at the primary level, but at secondary and tertiary levels as well. Raising education rates at a primary and secondary level will have positive flow on effects for women in terms of employment, health, and minimizing social disadvantage. The ICOWHI plans to support women in educational endeavors to promote empowerment and positively affect gender inequality in the educational sphere.

We need to advocate for doctorally prepared graduates who can provide leadership and direction for research. Strategies to ensure that these goals are met include the following; reducing the costs of education, providing scholarships, ensuring schools are girl friendly, educating men on the benefits of educated women, and reducing the physical barriers in accessing education such as issues surrounding transportation Grown et al.

Not only does accessibility need to be improved, but content and structure also need to be addressed. This can occur via teacher training and curriculum reform and by addressing institutionalized gender bias that exist within schools Grown et al.

Gender inequality also pervades labor markets and the political landscape. It is deeply rooted in entrenched attitudes, societal institutions, market forces, political values, and ideas Kettel, Sincethere has been a steady global increase of women in nonagricultural wage employment. The WHO estimates that women remain at a disadvantage in securing paid jobs, however, due to pervading sociocultural attitudes, minimal options for balancing work and family responsibilities, and challenges in birth control UN, In the health profession, women make up the majority of health workers in most settings but are often excluded from positions of responsibility and authority.

The WHO describes the current situation as a paradox, as women are the backbone of formal and informal health care: however, they are often excluded from these services or have limited access WHO, Some countries have implemented mandatory or voluntary measures to increase the of women in politics, which partially may for such increases. The ICOWHI intends to facilitate increased female participation in decision-making positions not only in the governance of health but other policy area as well.

Unfortunately, the of children who die every year from preventable disease ificantly exceeds the goal set for and remains at 87 deaths per 1, live births. The leading risk factors for child mortality include malnutrition under nutritionunsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, suboptimal breastfeeding, and indoor smoke from solid fuels WHO, The under-5 mortality rate is highest in developing areas with low household wealth and poor maternal education rates.

Similarly, a link between maternal education level and child vaccination has been identified. This further exemplifies the critical link between poor levels of education, social disadvantage, and adverse health outcomes. Every year around nine million children under 5 years, including 4. It is therefore crucial to promote the provision of early childhood education to all mothers, including programs regarding breastfeeding, nutrition, and child vaccination and targeting women in low socioeconomic and impoverished areas. Improved and wider access to education paired with the provision of basic health services and vaccination will likely have a cost-effective and dramatic effect in reducing child mortality.

It is therefore vital that these goals are addressed codependently, rather than separately. In developed countries, there are, on average, nine maternal deaths perlive births; however, for disadvantaged developing countries this figure is 1, or more perlive births WHO, Maternal mortality remains highest in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Despite a global increase in the of births attended by skilled health care personnel, ratios of maternal mortality in these areas have changed very little since ificantly, wealthy and urban mothers are three to six times more likely than rural and poor mothers to deliver with health personnel present.

Regular use of antenatal services prior to delivery also has been shown to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Lack of access to antenatal and postnatal care services is commonly associated with social isolation, a lack of recognition of the importance of gestational care, or lack of resources such as transport Womens Health Outcomes Framework, Given that the two main causes of maternal mortality in developing regions are hemorrhage and hypertension UN,providing skilled health care prior to and at delivery is pivotal to minimizing maternal mortality.

In some areas of Asia and Africa, less than half the women giving birth are attended to by skilled health personnel UN, The ICOWHI seeks to support universal education and health strategies that aim to increase the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel, particularly for women in remote and rural areas. In addition to providing care at delivery, it is important to make available adequate reproductive health services, postpartum care, and family planning.

While no single answer can address the multiple causes of maternal deaths, the ICOWHI intends to lobby for increased funding for health care interventions that reduce maternal death rates.

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The ICOWHI also intends to make these interventions more widely available, particularly in rural and impoverished areas. Further, in many areas more than half of those living with HIV are women. In other regions, epidemics are spreading from particular population groups—such as sex workers or injecting drug users—into the general population, with women and girls increasingly affected.

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Although access to AIDS treatment has expanded, the need continues to grow. The ICOWHI intends to support preventative strategies such as education, and to reduce the prevalence of mother-to-child transmissions.

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The ICOWHI will lobby for increased accessibility to antiretroviral therapy for women and children to ensure management and further preventions. The goal of ICOWHI is to ensure that testing and counseling becomes more widely available, particularly in high-risk areas and for high-risk women. Furthermore, the ICOWHI hopes to facilitate the development of a functioning health care infrastructure in those high-risk areas. This includes ensuring that these areas have enough health workers to meet the demands of the community.

Importantly, the ICOWHI also will work to remove the discrimination and stigma associated with those infected and will educate those who are infected to effectively manage the disease and remove possibilities of further transmission. Malaria-control efforts are paying off; however, additional effort is needed as to children die each hour from malaria, amounting for 1 to 2 million deaths yearly Breman, In total, malaria kills up to three million people per year worldwide, and, like many other diseases, most of the victims are from sub-Saharan Africa Sachs, The prevalence and mortality rates surrounding malaria are astonishing considering that the disease is treatable and highly preventable.

The ICOWHI intends to advocate for the sustainability of malaria reduction programs and maximize capacity building by targeted investments, such as the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets and effective medicines to impoverished rural areas of Africa. The incidence of tuberculosis is leveling off globally, but the of new cases is still rising.

Reaching global targets for tuberculosis control will require accelerated progress, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Other strategies need to be implemented to ensure that women are not falling victim to treatable and preventable diseases and viruses. The human papilloma virus HPV is the primary cause of death from cancer in the developing world Shaw,and globally almost all cases of cervical cancer are linked to genital infection with HPV WHO, The highly effective HPV vaccine is neither accessible nor utilized in developing countries due to cost; however, this vaccine is easily accessed within developed countries.

Many preventative strategies are not implemented in developing countries, despite the fact that regular screening has positive links to reducing the prevalence of cervical cancer.

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